blob: 12be1c9c1bfc4dbda1c7bf16937e81baf2c2e515 [file] [log] [blame]
"""Open an arbitrary URL.
See the following document for more info on URLs:
"Names and Addresses, URIs, URLs, URNs, URCs", at
See also the HTTP spec (from which the error codes are derived):
"HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol", at
Related standards and specs:
- RFC1808: the "relative URL" spec. (authoritative status)
- RFC1738 - the "URL standard". (authoritative status)
- RFC1630 - the "URI spec". (informational status)
All code but that related to URL parsing has been removed (since it is not
compatible with Google App Engine)from this fork of the original file,
obtained from:*checkout*/python/tags/r252/Lib/
import string
import sys
from urlparse import urljoin as basejoin
__all__ = ["quote", "quote_plus", "unquote", "unquote_plus",
"urlencode", "splittag",
"basejoin", "unwrap",
"splittype", "splithost", "splituser", "splitpasswd", "splitport",
"splitnport", "splitquery", "splitattr", "splitvalue",
__version__ = '1.17' # XXX This version is not always updated :-(
# Utilities to parse URLs (most of these return None for missing parts):
# unwrap('<URL:type://host/path>') --> 'type://host/path'
# splittype('type:opaquestring') --> 'type', 'opaquestring'
# splithost('//host[:port]/path') --> 'host[:port]', '/path'
# splituser('user[:passwd]@host[:port]') --> 'user[:passwd]', 'host[:port]'
# splitpasswd('user:passwd') -> 'user', 'passwd'
# splitport('host:port') --> 'host', 'port'
# splitquery('/path?query') --> '/path', 'query'
# splittag('/path#tag') --> '/path', 'tag'
# splitattr('/path;attr1=value1;attr2=value2;...') ->
# '/path', ['attr1=value1', 'attr2=value2', ...]
# splitvalue('attr=value') --> 'attr', 'value'
# splitgophertype('/Xselector') --> 'X', 'selector'
# unquote('abc%20def') -> 'abc def'
# quote('abc def') -> 'abc%20def')
except NameError:
def _is_unicode(x):
return 0
def _is_unicode(x):
return isinstance(x, unicode)
def toBytes(url):
"""toBytes(u"URL") --> 'URL'."""
# Most URL schemes require ASCII. If that changes, the conversion
# can be relaxed
if _is_unicode(url):
url = url.encode("ASCII")
except UnicodeError:
raise UnicodeError("URL " + repr(url) +
" contains non-ASCII characters")
return url
def unwrap(url):
"""unwrap('<URL:type://host/path>') --> 'type://host/path'."""
url = url.strip()
if url[:1] == '<' and url[-1:] == '>':
url = url[1:-1].strip()
if url[:4] == 'URL:': url = url[4:].strip()
return url
_typeprog = None
def splittype(url):
"""splittype('type:opaquestring') --> 'type', 'opaquestring'."""
global _typeprog
if _typeprog is None:
import re
_typeprog = re.compile('^([^/:]+):')
match = _typeprog.match(url)
if match:
scheme =
return scheme.lower(), url[len(scheme) + 1:]
return None, url
_hostprog = None
def splithost(url):
"""splithost('//host[:port]/path') --> 'host[:port]', '/path'."""
global _hostprog
if _hostprog is None:
import re
_hostprog = re.compile('^//([^/?]*)(.*)$')
match = _hostprog.match(url)
if match: return, 2)
return None, url
_userprog = None
def splituser(host):
"""splituser('user[:passwd]@host[:port]') --> 'user[:passwd]', 'host[:port]'."""
global _userprog
if _userprog is None:
import re
_userprog = re.compile('^(.*)@(.*)$')
match = _userprog.match(host)
if match: return map(unquote,, 2))
return None, host
_passwdprog = None
def splitpasswd(user):
"""splitpasswd('user:passwd') -> 'user', 'passwd'."""
global _passwdprog
if _passwdprog is None:
import re
_passwdprog = re.compile('^([^:]*):(.*)$')
match = _passwdprog.match(user)
if match: return, 2)
return user, None
# splittag('/path#tag') --> '/path', 'tag'
_portprog = None
def splitport(host):
"""splitport('host:port') --> 'host', 'port'."""
global _portprog
if _portprog is None:
import re
_portprog = re.compile('^(.*):([0-9]+)$')
match = _portprog.match(host)
if match: return, 2)
return host, None
_nportprog = None
def splitnport(host, defport=-1):
"""Split host and port, returning numeric port.
Return given default port if no ':' found; defaults to -1.
Return numerical port if a valid number are found after ':'.
Return None if ':' but not a valid number."""
global _nportprog
if _nportprog is None:
import re
_nportprog = re.compile('^(.*):(.*)$')
match = _nportprog.match(host)
if match:
host, port =, 2)
if not port: raise ValueError, "no digits"
nport = int(port)
except ValueError:
nport = None
return host, nport
return host, defport
_queryprog = None
def splitquery(url):
"""splitquery('/path?query') --> '/path', 'query'."""
global _queryprog
if _queryprog is None:
import re
_queryprog = re.compile('^(.*)\?([^?]*)$')
match = _queryprog.match(url)
if match: return, 2)
return url, None
_tagprog = None
def splittag(url):
"""splittag('/path#tag') --> '/path', 'tag'."""
global _tagprog
if _tagprog is None:
import re
_tagprog = re.compile('^(.*)#([^#]*)$')
match = _tagprog.match(url)
if match: return, 2)
return url, None
def splitattr(url):
"""splitattr('/path;attr1=value1;attr2=value2;...') ->
'/path', ['attr1=value1', 'attr2=value2', ...]."""
words = url.split(';')
return words[0], words[1:]
_valueprog = None
def splitvalue(attr):
"""splitvalue('attr=value') --> 'attr', 'value'."""
global _valueprog
if _valueprog is None:
import re
_valueprog = re.compile('^([^=]*)=(.*)$')
match = _valueprog.match(attr)
if match: return, 2)
return attr, None
def splitgophertype(selector):
"""splitgophertype('/Xselector') --> 'X', 'selector'."""
if selector[:1] == '/' and selector[1:2]:
return selector[1], selector[2:]
return None, selector
_hextochr = dict(('%02x' % i, chr(i)) for i in range(256))
_hextochr.update(('%02X' % i, chr(i)) for i in range(256))
def unquote(s):
"""unquote('abc%20def') -> 'abc def'."""
res = s.split('%')
for i in xrange(1, len(res)):
item = res[i]
res[i] = _hextochr[item[:2]] + item[2:]
except KeyError:
res[i] = '%' + item
except UnicodeDecodeError:
res[i] = unichr(int(item[:2], 16)) + item[2:]
return "".join(res)
def unquote_plus(s):
"""unquote('%7e/abc+def') -> '~/abc def'"""
s = s.replace('+', ' ')
return unquote(s)
'0123456789' '_.-')
_safemaps = {}
def quote(s, safe = '/'):
"""quote('abc def') -> 'abc%20def'
Each part of a URL, e.g. the path info, the query, etc., has a
different set of reserved characters that must be quoted.
RFC 2396 Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax lists
the following reserved characters.
reserved = ";" | "/" | "?" | ":" | "@" | "&" | "=" | "+" |
"$" | ","
Each of these characters is reserved in some component of a URL,
but not necessarily in all of them.
By default, the quote function is intended for quoting the path
section of a URL. Thus, it will not encode '/'. This character
is reserved, but in typical usage the quote function is being
called on a path where the existing slash characters are used as
reserved characters.
cachekey = (safe, always_safe)
safe_map = _safemaps[cachekey]
except KeyError:
safe += always_safe
safe_map = {}
for i in range(256):
c = chr(i)
safe_map[c] = (c in safe) and c or ('%%%02X' % i)
_safemaps[cachekey] = safe_map
res = map(safe_map.__getitem__, s)
return ''.join(res)
def quote_plus(s, safe = ''):
"""Quote the query fragment of a URL; replacing ' ' with '+'"""
if ' ' in s:
s = quote(s, safe + ' ')
return s.replace(' ', '+')
return quote(s, safe)
def urlencode(query,doseq=0):
"""Encode a sequence of two-element tuples or dictionary into a URL query string.
If any values in the query arg are sequences and doseq is true, each
sequence element is converted to a separate parameter.
If the query arg is a sequence of two-element tuples, the order of the
parameters in the output will match the order of parameters in the
if hasattr(query,"items"):
# mapping objects
query = query.items()
# it's a bother at times that strings and string-like objects are
# sequences...
# non-sequence items should not work with len()
# non-empty strings will fail this
if len(query) and not isinstance(query[0], tuple):
raise TypeError
# zero-length sequences of all types will get here and succeed,
# but that's a minor nit - since the original implementation
# allowed empty dicts that type of behavior probably should be
# preserved for consistency
except TypeError:
ty,va,tb = sys.exc_info()
raise TypeError, "not a valid non-string sequence or mapping object", tb
l = []
if not doseq:
# preserve old behavior
for k, v in query:
k = quote_plus(str(k))
v = quote_plus(str(v))
l.append(k + '=' + v)
for k, v in query:
k = quote_plus(str(k))
if isinstance(v, str):
v = quote_plus(v)
l.append(k + '=' + v)
elif _is_unicode(v):
# is there a reasonable way to convert to ASCII?
# encode generates a string, but "replace" or "ignore"
# lose information and "strict" can raise UnicodeError
v = quote_plus(v.encode("ASCII","replace"))
l.append(k + '=' + v)
# is this a sufficient test for sequence-ness?
x = len(v)
except TypeError:
# not a sequence
v = quote_plus(str(v))
l.append(k + '=' + v)
# loop over the sequence
for elt in v:
l.append(k + '=' + quote_plus(str(elt)))
return '&'.join(l)